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The following six items were assessed: good versus bad mood, bored versus activated, satisfied versus unsatisfied with myself, nervous versus relaxed, inhibited versus determined, and satisfied versus unsatisfied with the interaction. Approximately one year after the start of the study November to January , participants were invited to take part in a laboratory session. Four participants were invited for every time slot. Specifically, they were told that the laboratory session would consist of four parts see Table 10 : One part in the video laboratory and three parts in the computer laboratory.

On the basis of their registration in the laboratory sessions, participants were assigned to a specific order in which they completed the four parts of the laboratory-based assessments. Participants rotated through the video laboratory so that at each time slot about 20 min , three participants worked on tasks in the computer laboratory, while one participant was observed in the video laboratory.

During the short breaks between each of the four parts, two participants stayed in the computer laboratory while the other two changed from one laboratory to the other. You have 3 minutes. Then you can start now. After finishing the self-introduction, participants were confronted with a stress test see [ ], for a successful previous application of this task.

In this stress test, participants were instructed that the goal of the test was to examine the degree to which they were able to comprehend and reproduce a scientific text under time pressure. They were told that this ability would be very important for successfully completing their psychology degree and that they would have 4 min to read an intellectually challenging text that had been adapted from a physiology textbook about the composition and function of blood [ ].

Subsequently, participants were requested to reproduce the knowledge they had learned in a 3-min presentation, which was videotaped. In the final part in the video laboratory, participants completed three economic tasks for the assessment of prosocial behavior: two versions of the Public Goods Game [ — ], followed by the social value orientation SVO; [ — ] questionnaire. In all tasks, participants were asked to make choices among combinations of outcomes for their own good or for the collective good. This ranged from a highly specific reference group all four participants from the same laboratory session , to a less specific but still concrete reference group all participants in CONNECT , to a highly abstract social reference fictitious unknown other person in the SVO questionnaire.

The participants played these games on the glass table when seated on the corner couch in the video laboratory. In the first game, participants received 5 Euro in cent coins and could decide how much they wanted to keep for themselves and how much they wanted to put into a public pot.

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They were told that the other three participants in the session would make the same decisions and thus would also put money in the public pot. They were further told that all money in the pot would then be doubled by the experimenter and equally distributed among the group members. Participants were further informed that a a higher contribution to the collective pot would result in a higher benefit for the entire group, b they would also receive a quarter of the group money even if they did not at all contribute to the public pot, 3 they could keep the money they did not contribute to the public pot, and 4 the other participants would not know how much each person had deposited in the public pot.

After having received these instructions, participants were to put the money in individual envelopes. In the second game, the same game was played again, but this time, the collective good represented not only the four participants in the session but the whole CONNECT cohort i. Finally, participants filled out the SVO questionnaire. At the end of the video laboratory session, two photographs of each participant were taken.

They were then paid, thanked, and debriefed. The three parts of the computer laboratory session involved, in the following order, a a working memory capacity task and a vocabulary knowledge task, b a reasoning test, and c Implicit Association Tests IATs for the indirect assessment of personality measures.

All tasks were administered on a personal computer with version 4. Participants sat in separate cubicles. As in PILS, we measured reasoning, vocabulary knowledge, and working memory capacity. Furthermore, we assessed implicit personality and SVO. Implicit personality: We measured implicit personality during the laboratory-based session using IATs [ ] to assess self-esteem, extraversion, neuroticism, and agreeableness [ , , ].

IAT data were treated with an improved scoring algorithm the so-called D1 measure as described by Greenwald, Nosek, and Banaji [ ].

The Four Personality Types and How to Deal with Them

To minimize fatigue and the utilization of response strategies, participants took breaks between each of the four IATs, during which they were presented with one thematic apperception test TAT picture and instructed to write down their ideas concerning the situation displayed in the picture see [ , ]. Individual behavioral assessments: The video footage was rated by trained coders for each of the different parts of the sessions, namely, a small talk i.


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All behaviors were rated on scales ranging from 1 not at all to 6 very strong. Video footage of small talk in the laboratory setting was rated with regard to nine behaviors in four categories: warm-heartedness i. Fourteen behaviors within five behavioral domains were rated in the self-introduction in the laboratory session: warm-heartedness i.

Four behavioral domains were rated from the video footage of the stress test: expressiveness i. All ratings were made on a scale ranging from 1 not at all to 6 very much so ; for ICCs see Results section. For both, the first Public Goods Game in which the collective pot was shared across the assessment group and the second Public Goods Game in which the collective pot was shared across all CONNECT participants, we recorded for each participant how many of the ten cent coins they gave to the collective pot i.

Furthermore, participants filled out the SVO questionnaire [ , ] in which they were informed that they were paired with a hypothetical random other person they did not know and would never meet in the future.

They were given nine statements in which they had to choose among three combinations of points for themselves and the other person. For each choice, one of the options represented a prosocial option e. We followed the standard scoring procedure and assessed for. In this part, we provide an overview on descriptive statistics, reliabilities, and intercorrelations for all data sources assessed in CONNECT with exemplary variables for each data source. All descriptive and additional exemplary analyses with data and R Code, parallel to those presented for PILS, can be found in the online supplement of this manuscript osf.

In Table 11 , we provide descriptive results on state-affect data before and after the zero-acquaintance experiment. Table 12 displays the results of the round-robin ratings in the zero-acquaintance experiment. The highest target variance i. Round-robin ratings, other perceptions. Again, the alpha values were similar to those reported in the original papers and have to be evaluated in the light of the brief nature of the measures e.

Intercorrelations between the trait variables can be found in Table We found medium to high correlations [ ] between self- and informant-reports, which were similar to those found in PILS and in a meta-analysis by Connelly and Ones [ 30 ] our data vs. We found significant correlations between Big Five traits that were similar to meta-analytical results cf. As in PILS, there was no significant association between neuroticism and conscientiousness -.

Also, we did not find a significant correlation between neuroticism and extraversion -. Table 15 shows the results from the first 21 time points of the time-based assessment, divided into three phases seven diaries each. Due to the nature of this data set naturally occurring network data , we calculated the perceiver, target, and relationship variance by computing crossed-random-effects models using the R package lme4: [ ]. We found that for most interpersonal perceptions and relationship indicators, the relationship variance was much higher than the perceiver or target variances.

Relative to other impressions, agentic characteristics showed a large amount of target variance e. This is in line with previous research that showed a substantial consensus when judging agentic characteristics and leadership, respectively [ 49 , ]. Corresponding to the time-based assessment displayed in Table 15 , Table 16 displays the results for the event-based assessment.

We compared our ICCs percentage of the total variance accounted for by between-person variance for self-reported behaviors with a recent experience sampling study by Sherman, Rauthmann, Brown, Serfass, and Jones [ ]. For behaviors that were assessed in both studies, we found very similar results our data Phase 1 vs. Sherman et al. Again, we calculated crossed-random-effects models for social relations analyses. Finally, all behavior and attractiveness ratings five to seven raters can be found in Table 17 range of ICCs from.

The low ICC for arrogance. The correlations between aggregated behavior ratings and corresponding self- and informant-reported traits T1 were similar to PILS results e. In developmental, social, and personality psychology, researchers aim at opening the process black box that underlies the expression, development, and mutual influence of personality and social relationships.

Building on an existing process framework for personality and social relationships e.

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Designed to address these challenges, we presented detailed descriptions of a laboratory-based PILS and a field-based CONNECT multimethodological, longitudinal, and process-oriented study, respectively. To provide an idea of the data obtained with these projects, the presentation also involved descriptive results. We described four methodological challenges that occur when studying the processes that underlie the reciprocal relation between personality and social relationships.

Our complementary laboratory-based and field-based approaches aimed at taking up on these challenges, with each providing unique benefits and strengths see [ 68 ], for an overview. In the field-based approach in CONNECT, but not in the laboratory-based approach in PILS, we aimed at capturing personality development by repeatedly assessing personality over the course of three years.

To be able to detect potentially quick changes directly after the participants transitioned into student life, we realized the first two assessments only being three months apart. To target the second aim of capturing social relationships, we longitudinally assessed objective and subjective indicators of social relationships, ensuring zero-acquaintance to be the starting point of our investigations in both studies. We captured initial phases of the acquaintance process with more frequent assessments in both studies.

To account for the bidirectional nature of social relationships, we employed round-robin designs within small groups in PILS and within the whole cohort of psychology freshmen in CONNECT that captured actor and partner perspectives within dyads and investigated all participants in multiple dyads. Compared to PILS, we enlarged the temporal resolution in CONNECT from hours to weeks, months, and years with regular assessments at later stages when social relationships were already formed, maintained, or terminated.

In PILS, we carefully created social situations to psychologically resemble the natural process of getting to know strangers. Typically increasing in intimacy and interactions depth, the sequence of interactive tasks mirrored this developmental course. The event-based assessment in particular was designed to assess rather objective and categorical i.

To address the fourth aim of capturing interaction processes, we realized longitudinal and multimethodological designs to repeatedly obtain direct observations video-based behavioral observations and immediate reports, capturing objective as well as subjective perspectives. Applying round-robin designs, each participant of the studies was investigated both as actor and partner within multiple dyads.

Especially the time- and event-based assessments within CONNECT are unique in the sense that they used the relatively young experience-sampling approach not only to target self-perceptions but also to target other-perceptions.


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To simplify the combination of both approaches, we additionally aimed at parallelizing the approaches as much as possible with respect to a the participants and the relationship type, b the procedures, and c the selection of constructs and measures. In both studies, we targeted students and their peer relationships because the transition to student life represents a decisive developmental phase in young adulthood and peer relations reflect an important type of social relationships during that time.

In both studies, we also started the assessment at the very beginning of the emergence of relationships i.

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Finally, in both studies, we parallelized the selection of targeted constructs and measures wherever possible. Regarding all construct domains, we applied identical or similar measures that were suited for either the laboratory-based or the field-based settings. In this way, one is able to address the same set of research questions with both data sets, allowing for stronger inferences about the social interaction processes that drive the expression, development, and mutual influence of personality and social relationships in that life phase.

We hope that future research will combine the two methodological approaches forwarded here, to comprehensively investigate the link between personality and social relationships. The combination of laboratory- and field-based designs might help to provide more robust and method-independent insights into this dynamic interplay.